Deep offshore hydrocarbons, once considered to be out of reach, now make up around 30% of the world’s yet-to-be-discovered conventional resources. Their exploitation, which takes place at greater and greater water depths, in increasingly difficult seas and within increasingly isolated reserves characterized by complex fluids, represents a major challenge for the future of energy. Thanks to its experience in deep offshore and to its continuous innovation policy, Total Exploration & Production, the leader in this field, rises to the intrinsic challenges of deep offshore hydrocarbon production every day.
The Main Challenges Posed by the New Deep Offshore Environment
Total anticipates future needs thanks to a long-term vision based on proven expertise in deep offshore. The Group’s teams, guided by a detailed list of the technological gaps to be overcome in order to address future challenges effectively, work on five priority goals.
Reducing the development and exploitation costs of deep offshore projects
The biggest savings will come from optimizing and reducing drilling times (which are the subject of new automation-based operating strategies), and from standardizing and industrializing subsea equipment and industrial synergies that are currently being developed.
The implementation of new subsea solutions will also provide another cost-reduction lever, as with the world’s first subsea separation system that was implemented in the Pazflor field (Angola) in 2011, which lowered the overall cost of this immense deep offshore development by 7%. In the long term, the new entirely subsea architectural concept, DEPTH® (Deep Export Production Treatment Hub), will provide financially viable access to reserves that are too far from the shore or too small to justify floating production facilities. This fully integrated plant will carry out on the seabed all the processing operations necessary to deliver products that are ready to be refined and exported to shore through subsea tie-backs that stretch across several hundred kilometers.
To meet the considerable energy needs generated by the widespread use of subsea processing, the Group is working to develop innovative technology in subsea power transmission and distribution to achieve two main goals: increasing the distance over which alternating current can be carried and obtaining electrical equipment that can withstand the high hydrostatic pressure that exists at great depths.
Accessing deep offshore satellite reserves
Certain DEPTH® technological building blocks, available in the shorter term, will make it possible to substantially reduce the development costs for these “peripheral” reserves, which contain 50 to 200 million barrels.
We foresee large savings in various areas, including water injection thanks to the SPRINGS® project, the first-ever subsea sulfate removal and treated seawater injection unit that has now been successfully tested by a deep-sea pilot. By removing a surface-based high-pressure water injection line, this solution will lower the development costs for satellite reserves that are more than 50 km away from an FPSO by over 20%. Our new subsea chemical storage and injection system serves the same purpose. It is one of the innovations designed to tackle the challenges faced by “all-electric” subsea production systems that do away with the need for umbilicals containing hydraulic and chemical lines. This local chemical storage and injection solution, which forms part of the conceptual designs of forthcoming satellite reserve developments, would lower costs by up to 35%.
Facilitating hydrocarbon transport
LedaFlow®, a new multiphase flow simulator, is one of the technological levers that are needed to make a qualitative leap forward in order to master flow assurance within an environment characterized by ever greater water depths and ever longer subsea lines.
Thanks to a number of enhanced algorithms that make calculations more reliable and accurate, LedaFlow® offers a clear competitive advantage for simulating unstable flow regimes. Its continuously improved performance, made possible by sustained R&D, will make it an essential tool for optimizing the design and cost of production and transport lines.
Guaranteeing the integrity of assets with new subsea technology
New subsea inspection, monitoring, maintenance and repair technology must be developed to find the most cost-effective way to protect the integrity of Total’s mature fields and the operability of their facilities over time. An AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) used to carry out visual and acoustic inspections on pipelines will be the first example of such technology; it will enter the industrial phase in 2017. Key to this AUV is its ability to ensure optimized, low-cost inspection campaigns. In the medium term, the aim is to obtain a multi-functional resident AUV that can spend several months on the seabed and carry out work on the facilities at any time.
Designing new risers for ultra-deep offshore
The emergence of new offshore exploration targets at depths of 3,000 meters or more requires us to push beyond the operating limits of existing technology and create groundbreaking technology for drilling, developing and producing at these depths. Today, risers constitute one of the most important links in the technological chain of ultra-deep offshore, for drilling as well as for production. Composite materials, which are lighter than steel, are needed to ensure that these pipes will be able to bear their own weight past a certain length. Total is working in partnership with several industrial firms on testing innovative solutions in hopes of providing a reliable solution and a diverse offer as quickly as possible.
Deep offshore: Continuous innovations over the past 15 years
Recognized by the industry as a deep offshore pioneer, Total turned its attention to subsea technology at the end of the 1960s. Since then, this pioneering mind-set has never faltered, ensuring that the story of the Group’s conquest of the deep sea is replete with major industrial achievements and new industrial standards.
Total began its deep offshore operations with the commissioning of the largest FPSO ever built. Girassol in Angola.
Total possesses high-level expertise in FPSO design and managing on-board safety. Dalia in Angola.
To improve operational flexibility, the topsides structure changes throughout the lifetime of the field. Akpo in Nigeria.
Constructing an FPSO requires considerable expertise in managing large projects. Pazflor in Angola.
Building an FPSO takes approximately ten million work hours over two years. Clov in Angola.
The Group’s innovations
- 1967: First subsea production well, drilled at a depth of 40 m and located 1,200 m from a host platform (Anguille Marine in Gabon).
- 1976: First subsea production station comprising three production wells within one template and first subsea robotics stage for wellhead maintenance (North-East Grondin in Gabon).
- 1983: North-East Frigg, first subsea gas development in the North Sea, exploited through six subsea wells that were remotely controlled from the Frigg platform located 18 km away (Norway).
- 1987: East Frigg, first subsea development in the world to be developed, maintained and operated without the need for divers; it also paved the way for deep-offshore field exploitation (Norway).
- 2001: Girassol, which reaches a depth of 1,400 m, is the biggest offshore development to date (Angola). Its technologically innovative riser towers are one of the many innovations for which it won the 2003 OTC Award.
- 2002: Canyon Express, the deepest offshore development to date (2,250 m), simultaneously develops three gas fields in the Gulf of Mexico (US).
- 2003: The Group’s first TLP (Tension Leg Platform) installed in 800 m of water and comprising surface wellheads (Gulf of Mexico, US).
- 2007: A 20 km tie-back installed at a depth of 1,400 m to connect Rosa to the Girassol FPSO, a technological first for a field of this size located at such a depth (Angola).
- 2008: K5F, the world’s first subsea project to use electrically-driven wellheads. The commissioning of a new all-electric subsea well in 2016 will constitute another world first (Netherlands).
- 2008-2012: First global industrial polymer injection pilot for the purposes of EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) in the deep-offshore Dalia field (Angola).
- 2011: Pazflor, the world’s first development to use subsea production activation systems that combine gas/liquid separation and new-generation pumps over several fields; this development won the 2013 OTC Award (Angola).
- 2012: Electrically Trace Heated Pipe-in-Pipe (ETH-PiP) pilot, an innovative technology that heats subsea pipes in the Islay field in the North Sea (UK).
- 2014: SPRINGS® offshore pilot unit test at a depth of 500 m, which demonstrated the excellent performance of this subsea seawater injection solution (Republic of the Congo).
- 2015: Laggan-Tormore, the first subsea-to-shore development (West Shetlands) of two isolated fields, which export gas to the shore through a 143-km subsea tie-back (UK). This development won the 2016 IPTC Award.
- 2016: The first 3.5MW subsea high-boost multiphase pump, on Moho Phase 1b, a development that complements the Alima brownfield (Republic of Congo).
Total, a leading deep offshore operator
Deep offshore currently accounts for 40% of all Total Group production and represents almost 70% of its 2015-2018 exploration goals.
Total’s deep offshore positions in 2017
- 15% of global oil production comes from deep offshore (Total’s forecast for 2019)
- 400 to 500 subsea wells operated
- 8 FPSO units, 2 FPUs
Deep offshore, a booming strategic activity
Total’s E&P developments, concentrated in the Gulf of Guinea, make it West Africa’s biggest deep-offshore operator in terms of production. Nevertheless, the scope of the Group’s activities in this area has grown significantly thanks to new E&P licenses in Eastern and Southern Africa, Asia and South America.
Block 17: Key figures
- 4,000 km2 surface area
- 15 strikes
- 4 FPSO units commissioned in 14 years (Girassol, Dalia, Pazflor and CLOV)
- 230,000 barrels per day (Group's part)
- 2 billion barrels: the aggregate production threshold reached in April 2015
Prioritizing the management of specific deep offshore risks
Performance and profitability come second to the highest priority: managing all types of risk, with a focus on the risks specific to deep offshore operations.
- Blowout prevention and management: following a blowout on a competitor’s exploration well in the Gulf of Mexico, Total and the rest of the industry invested in developing new technology and equipment (designed to capture leaks, contain wells, etc.) to resolve a major incident of this kind as quickly as possible. Customized containment solutions for its subsea production wells in the Gulf of Guinea were also developed in-house.
- Actions to tackle marine pollution: the development of Spill Watch, an in-house operational process that monitors and forecasts the movement of oil slicks, has allowed the Group to make significant qualitative progress in terms of the reliability and accuracy of oil-slick drift forecasting.
- Subsea monitoring: committed to an extensive program that develops new subsea leak detection technology, Total has also created an observatory for the real-time surveillance of subsea geological contingencies.
Flow Assurance: a Sensitive Issue for Any Oil Project
Springs®, Cutting Edge Technology
K5F: the First All-Electric Subsea Well in the Oil Industry
Flow Assurance with Multiphase Pumps
Extended Well Test on Libra
An AUV to Optimise Pipeline Inspections